The industrial complex of Nuevo Baztán was founded, with the arrival of the Borbón dinasty, at the beginning of the 18th century (1709-1713) by the navarre Juan de Goyeneche, with the purpose of setting the Colbertian theories inside a real enterprise. Colbertism was born in France in the previous century and quickly spread through several european countries.
The palatial complex was declared Historic Artistic Monument in 1941, and was property of different owners over the centuries. The 26th of February of 1980 it was also declared Place of Historic-Artistic Interest, and then, in March of 2000, it was declared Place of Cultural Interest. The 5th of April of 1989 it was finally donated to Madrid Regional Government.
THE URBAN COMPLEX
The small city created by Goyeneche and the architect José de Churiguera was conceived as an urbanistic unit. It was developed around the main buildings, namely the palace and the church.
Its urban structure is reflected in the distribution of the streets in connection with the road to Alcalá, one of the most important roads of the area. The complex features an orthogonal design, givig shape to six blocks. Churriguera found the perfect way to structure the settlement, creating an schema which relies on the palace, the church and the main manufacturing buildings.
Three squares structure and arange the complex. Around them, Churriguera used a classical orthogonal distribution, ensuring an organized development. This kind of structure allows an easier distribution of activities and inhabitants.
Through this planning, Goyeneche achieved two goals, being one a good working distribution and the other social stability.
THE PALACE AND THE FACTORIES
The palace, the church and the village were builded with limestone. There can be appreciated the baroque constants of Churriguera: a central building which represents the core from where the complex is dominated. There converge squares, buildings and streets joined through a straight layout.
Palace and church are the body and soul of Nuevo Baztán, being the true heart of the project. Both buildings form one block, joined by one of the towers of the complex, providing also internal communication between them, but their external appearance is completely different. The complex is completed by the Senior officers’ lodgings., Several structures were added over the years, such as the wine cellar, the market, the straw loft, the carriage houses, the mill and other buildings destinated to the palace administrators.
The contrast between palace and church is shown in ornamental elements which reveal the desire of integration while keeping two different structures. The main streets of the place depart from the palace, which volume is notable from every square. The three squares of the village are connected, showing little differences due to their usage.
The Church Square, just opposite to the Palace main entrance, preserved its original baroque look until 19th century, framing the view over the church and the palace. On one side of it dwells the Market Square, having a simple arcade, now lost, which gave access to the commercial building and to the Festivity Square, true core of the original settlement.